• 2月14日,祝电脑生日快乐!

    来源:SOHU  [  作者:LearnAndRecord   ]  责编:杨丽  |  侵权/违法举报

    原标题:2月14日,祝电脑生日快乐!

    1946年2月14日,世界上第一台通用计算机ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)问世,并于次日在宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)正式投入使用。

    让我们一起祝「ENIAC」生日快乐!

    What Happened on February 14th

    On February, 14, 1946, one of the world"s first electronic digital computers—ENIAC—was demonstrated to the public. It was shown at the School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania. The computer was designed by engineer J. Presper Eckert and physicist John Mauchly. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was 1,000 times faster at calculations than previous electro-mechanical machines. ENIAC was much larger and much slower than modern computers, however.

    demonstrate

    1)此处用作及物动词,表示“展示?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“If you demonstrate something, you show people how it works or how to do it.”举个??:

    A selection of cosmetic companies will be there to demonstrate their new products.

    一些化妆品公司会在那里展示他们的新产品。

    2)还可以表示“证明?#20445;?#21450;物动词,英文解释为“To demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people.”举个??:

    The study also demonstrated a direct link between obesity and mortality.

    这项研究也证明了肥胖和死亡率之间的直接关系。

    3)表示“展现(才能、品质、感情)?#20445;?#21450;物动词,英文解释为“If you demonstrate a particular skill, quality, or feeling, you show by your actions that you have it.”举个??:

    Have they, for example, demonstrated a commitment to democracy?

    例如,他们展现了对民主的奉献吗?

    4)用作不及物动词,表示“游行示威?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“When people demonstrate, they march or gather somewhere to show their opposition to something or their support for something.”举个??:

    Some 1,000 angry farmers arrived in Brussels yesterday to demonstrate against possible cuts in subsidies.

    昨天大约一千名愤怒的农民到布鲁塞尔游行示威,反对可能的补贴削减。

    electro-mechanical

    表示“机电的,机电装置的;与机电装置有关的?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“of, relating to, or concerning an electrically operated mechanical device”。

    1996年,CNN发文纪念第一台通用计算机诞生50周年。

    First electronic computer turns 50

    Fifty years ago, engineers hit a switch and powered up the world"s first electronic, general purpose computer. Vice President Al Gore did the same Wednesday to honor the legacy of the massive machine known as ENIAC.
    In a speech at the University of Pennsylvania, where ENIAC was developed, Gore urged Congress to continue funding for science and technology. He noted that ENIAC initially was funded with a small government grant.

    fund

    1)此处用作动词,表示“资助?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“When a person or organization funds something, they provide money for it.”举个??:

    The airport is being privately funded by a construction group.

    该机场正由一建筑集团私家资助。

    2)还可以用作名词,而且又有两种情况:

    ①只以复数?#38382;?#20986;现,表示“(尤指为特定目的而给予某组织的)资金?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“Funds are amounts of money that are available to be spent, especially money that is given to an organization or person for a particular purpose.”举个??:

    The concert will raise funds for research into AIDS.

    这场音乐会将为艾滋病研究筹集资金。

    ②可数名词,表示“(为特定目的而筹集或保留的)专项资金?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“A fund is an amount of money that is collected or saved for a particular purpose.”如:a scholarship fund for undergraduate engineering students. 一笔用于工程学?#31350;?#29983;的奖学金专项资金。

    grant

    表示“补助金?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“A grant is an amount of money that a government or other institution gives to an individual or to an organization for a particular purpose such as education or home improvements.”举个??:

    They"d got a special grant to encourage research.

    他们已得到了一笔用来支持研究的特别补助金。

    The technological wonder was as big as a small house, and it took days to program and process small amounts of information. But it worked. Most of the old machine is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution.
    In 1941, a small band of electrical engineers set out to turn a room full of wires and vacuum tubes into the world"s first functioning computer. The technology pioneers succeeded on February 14, 1946, at the University of Pennsylvania.

    a band of

    表示“(趣味相投的)群体?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“A band of people is a group of people who have joined together because they share an interest or belief.”举个??:

    Bands of government soldiers and rebels have been roaming some neighbourhoods.

    一群群政府士兵和叛乱分子一直在一些街区里游荡。

    vacuum

    vacuum /?v?kj??m, -j??m/

    1)此处表示“真空?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“A vacuum is a space that contains no air or other gas.”举个??:

    Wind is a current of air caused by a vacuum caused by hot air rising.

    风是由热?#25484;?#19978;升产生真空而引起的?#25484;?#27969;动。

    2)表示“空缺?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“If someone or something creates a vacuum, they leave a place or position that then needs to be filled by another person or thing.”举个??:

    His presence should fill the power vacuum that has been developing over the past few days.

    他的出现应该能填补过去几天中形成的权力空缺。

    短语:in a vacuum 表示“在与世隔绝的状态?#23567;?#33521;文解释为“If something is done in a vacuum, it is not affected by any outside influences or information.”举个??:

    Moral values cannot be taught in a vacuum.

    道?#24405;?#20540;观不能在与世隔绝的状态中进行传授。

    The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer known as ENIAC was 100 feet long, 10 feet high and weighed 30 tons. Its designers wanted to be able process huge amounts of information faster than anyone had done ever before.
    "The desire from the very beginning was to eliminate reams of data, eliminate data overload and find facts -- and find it whenever you wanted," said ENIAC programmer Rocco Martino. He joined the ENIAC team as a programmer after the computer had been moved from Philadelphia to the Army"s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland.

    reams of

    表示“ 大量;许多?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“If you say that there are reams of paper or reams of writing, you mean that there are large amounts of it.”举个??:

    Their specific task is to sort through the reams of information and try to determine what it means.

    他们的具体任务就是将大量信息分类,并努力弄清其意思。

    Now, students at the University of Pennsylvania are bringing it back to life with the help of today"s technology.

    与“life”有关的短语

    1)表示“带来生机;使变得生动?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“If you bring something to life or if it comes to life, it becomes interesting or exciting.”举个??:

    The cold, hard cruelty of two young men is vividly brought to life in this true story.

    两个年轻人的冷漠和残忍在这个真实的故事里被生动地表现了出来。

    2)表示“(机器或车辆)突然开动?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“You can use expressions such as to come to life, to spring to life, and to roar into life to indicate that a machine or vehicle suddenly starts working or moving.”举个??:

    To his great relief the engine came to life.

    让他松一口气的是,引擎发动起来了。

    "I really don"t care about vacuum tubes because you really don"t use vacuum tubes anymore," said senior Tim Rauenbusch. "I was just wondering how the thing worked."
    So Rauenbusch came up with a program that simulates every ENIAC function on modern computers. "All the mathematical things you can do on a spreadsheet you can run on ENIAC," he said.

    simulate

    表示“模拟?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“If you simulate a set of conditions, you create them artificially, for example, in order to conduct an experiment.”举个??:

    The scientist developed one model to simulate a full year of the globe"s climate.

    这位科学家研制出一个模型,能模拟全年地球的气候。

    spreadsheet

    表示“电子表格(程序)?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“a computer program that can show and calculate financial information; a document that contains rows and columns of numbers that can be used to calculate something”。

    Today"s computer experts are discovering ENIAC was far more advanced in its design than even its designers suspected.
    "The manner in which the circuits operate, the speed with which they perform are better than what we have today," Martino said. But ENIAC had no real memory and couldn"t handle most of the computing functions expected of today"s personal computers.
    The room in which ENIAC got its start now houses a state-of-the-art computer graphics lab where a computer-generated look at ENIAC is another reminder of the legacy left by the world"s first electronic, general purpose computer.

    state-of-the-art

    表示“最先进技术的,达到最新水平的?#20445;?#33521;文解释为“using the most modern and recently developed methods, materials, or knowledge”举个??:

    His new laptop is state-of-the-art.

    他那台新笔记本电脑是最先进的。

    - END -

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